Common historical roots of Hungary and Venezuela

 

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Hungary, the more than a thousand-year-old Central European country with the dimensions of Venezuela's member state Apure, and with a population equivalent to that of Caracas, is a declared antineoliberal state which in the same manner as Venezuela, (along with the vast majority of Latin American countries nowadays) recently introduced a new patriotic & Christian constitution and ended its relationship with the International Monetary Fund. The incumbent Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán elected with a 70% of parliamentary majority, acting on the recommendations  of the Economy Minister ( and current Governor of the Central Bank) Mr. György Matolcsy introduced a series of measures to curb the endless looting of the country by multinational firms and banks. Lately the Hungarian Government has even introduced a national family home ownership assistance program (Hungarian families receive  gift-money  to buy a home) . His actions elicited a violent reaction from the neoliberal press of Washington, Brussels and Madrid, which nicknamed Prime Minister Orbán  as "The Hugo Chávez of Europe" for thus defending the Hungarian people.

Video on the Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán nicknamed the "Hugo Chávez of Europe", leading the March 15, 2018, Peace March attended by more than 1/2 million people (5% of the Hungarian population), calling for the fight against US-funded NGOs that oppose  Hungarian people. The march concluded with everyone singing the song born during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 fought against the same empire that dominated Venezuela, inspired by the victory of Bolivar achieved with the help of the Hungarian hussars.

Video on the left (March 15. 2018) Peace March led by Dr. Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary, nicknamed the "Hugo Chávez of Europe" by the Western press, (attended by more than 1/2 million people, equal to 5% of the Hungarian population).  During the march he not only urged the Hungarian people to fight for the homeland, but said that "the NGOs that are attacking the Hungarian people financed by the American George Soros (one of the biggest opponents of Venezuela and funders of Mr. Luis Almagro in the OAS and its “democratic" Inter American Charter) will not be tolerated and that he should take them back to the US, because the Hungarian people will expel them, just as they expelled the Habsburg Empire.” The same one which not only dominated Hungary, but also Venezuela. The hussars in red ("huszár” in Hungarian means member of a military unit of 20) next to Dr. Orbán, are a national symbol of Hungary, being a military body originated in Hungary which helped Simon Bolivar (supported by Hungary) win the decisive  Battle of Carabobo, instrumental in liberating  Spanish America, because his predecessor Generalissimo Miranda lived in Hungary, where he received support for the Latin American Revolution. The latter victory inspired the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

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Bolivarian analogies do not end there: In December 2014 the Head of U.S. diplomacy in Hungary at the time, Charge d'affaires André Goodfriend (video) , breaking international law,  led mass marches organized by the Hungarian neoliberal opposition in order to oust the democratically elected government of Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán ( Andre Goodfriend, before coming to Hungary was stationed in Syria, coordinating NGOs to change the regime of  the democratically elected President Bashar al-Assad). Marchers in Hungary vandalized public buildings breaking windows and destroying other properties.  At the same time, the U.S. State Department denied entry visas to six high - ranking Hungarian government officials, declaring them corrupt criminals. Among the falsely accused was Hungary’s top tax auditor Madame Ildiko Vida, because she uncovered and stopped illegal U.S. financing of pseudo-NGOs aimed at sacking the Hungarian Government. Simultaneously, Senator John Mc Cain pronounced that the Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán is a „neofascist dictator”. To counter, Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán required the falsely accused members of his administration to sue the  top U.S. diplomat in Hungary at the time, Mr. André Goodfriend. The scandal was so big, that Mr. Goodfriend had to leave Hungary. Despite the strong global mainstream media fake news, alleging that „Hungary is the next Ukraine”, hawkish Washington Neoconservatives could not effect a „regime change”. 

Latin American connections are nothing new: Hungary has a two-centuries-long historical relationship with Latin America and Venezuela, having been involved in the liberation and the founding of the modern Latin American Bolivarian states during the 19th century.  At one time, Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda  lived in Hungary. It is no coincidence that Hungary is the only European country which,  to commemorate the bicentennial anniversary in 1983 of the birth of Simon Bolivar, issued its national currency (the Hungarian forint) and a postage stamp with a portrait of Simon Bolivar, the Liberator of Latin America.  It also published a bilingual book entitled "Hungary Remembers Simon Bolivar" due to the fundamental effect of  Bolivar's ideas on those of the Hungarian Count István Széchenyi, an icon of  Hungarian freedom. 

 

The Hungarian capital of Budapest also has the Simon Bolivar  Boulevard, where the Liberator's bust was recently honored by his excellency the Venezuelan Ambassador appointed to  Hungary,  Dr. Raúl Betancourt Seeland (see video on him meeting the President of Hungary, Dr. János Áder).

100 Hungarian Forint coin with the effigy of Simon Bolivar the Liberator of Latin America, Venezuela, and the countries liberated , with the Andean Condor bird on the reverse side.

Bolivarian  stamp issued by Hungary

Bilingual book entitled "Hungary Remembers Simon Bolivar" published by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

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In addition, The Hungarian Francisco de Miranda Scientific Institute of Budapest is a Hungarian entity , the result of a bilateral agreement, with the State Polytechnic University of Puerto Cabello (IUTPC (Spanish language Venezuelan government link) , located on the postcard-picture-perfect  shore of the Caribbean Sea in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. We are headquartered in Budapest (with several offices in Venezuela), the capital of the more than  thousand-year-old Hungarian Republic. Budapest  is also often referred to as the Pearl of the Danube River (See video below right).

The Hungarian people have Asian tribal origins, very much like those peoples that crossed the Bering Straight and spread throughout the Americas. These common roots are proven by genetic and comparative indigenous folklore studies.

Sándor Wekerle Three Times Prime Minister of Hungary 

Hungary in the same way as Venezuela has patriotic historical figures, such as Sándor Wekerle (western word order) three times Prime Minister of Hungary who transitioned the country to a free republic, during the last stage of the 400-year-long Habsburg Bourbon imperial rule which ended in 1920. At one time, the aforementioned empire not only dominated Latin America and Venezuela, but Central Europe, Hungary in particular. Latin America from  the 1500's onwards was similraly dominated by the Spanish, beginning with King Charles the First , whose brother King Ferdinand the First  (also born in Spain),  was forced upon Hungary).

 

Following 400 years of such imperial domination in 1920 Hungary lost 75% of its territories in the same manner that Venezuela lost its Guayana Esequiba Territories.

Budapest the capital of Hungary is the  pearl of the  Danube River. Fall night takes.

The music button on the upper right side of this page starts playing the "Rákóczi March" in honor of our First War of Liberation fought between 1703-1711, led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi against the Habsburg Bourbon Empire. The "Rákóczi March"   served as our National Anthem until the XIXth century.  

Following the 400 year imperial domination, because of the same powers due to which Venezuela lost its Esequibo Territories, in 1920 Hungary lost 75% of its national area due to the terrible Treaty of Trianon, held on the outskirts of Paris, France.  The original area of Hungary is shown in clear ocher yellow color and the current borders with blue. Hungary lost  mountains, mineral resources, forests, fertile lands and its sea access. Currently there is a several million strong Hungarian ethnic ring   around the borders of the country, whose members in many cases are discriminated against and persecuted. This could not even be solved by the European (dis) Union. Luckily, the incumbent Hungarian Prime Minister Dr. Viktor Orbán, is giving Hungarian citizenship and/or right to vote, and all kind of help for our brothers and sisters living next to our current borders.

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In 1785 the patriotic Venezuelan Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda, looking for allies for the magnanimous cause of Latin American independence, visited Hungary, where he received help for the Latin American Revolution. Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda in Hungary stayed at the Eszterháza Palace ,where he delighted the European aristocracy, since he even gave a music concert with the famous musician Joseph Hayden. Miranda was invited to Hungary by Prince Nicolaus Esterhazy "The Magnificent".
 

In the fall of 2012 the Bolivarian Government of Venezuela unveiled the bust of General Francisco de Miranda in Hungary at the Eszterháza Palace, now a Hungarian state  museum.  The Venezuelan delegation and Hungarian dignitaries were led by Madame Dr. Adriana Gottberg and Dr. Ferenc Kocsis respectively, with the honorable presence of Prince Antal Esterhazy and his wife Lady Svetlana  (Click on the left to see video; on the right you can see a picture of the ceremony). 

 

The last owner of the Eszterháza Palace was the Princess Melinda Ottrubay Esterhazy, the great-aunt of the Hungarian economist

Milan Mamusich who serves at the Hungarian Miranda Institute in the capacity of Presidential Advisor. She received the property back following the destruction of the Berlin Wall, marking an end to the  systemic persecution over half a century which impoverished and almost annihilated the  family in Hungary. Lacking funds to maintain it, she gave the Palace of Eszterháza back to the Hungarian State.

 

It is worth noting that General Agustín Jerónimo Íturbide Prince Imperial of Mexico, faithful to Simon Bolivar until the end in Colombia, was also a member of the Hungarian Mikoss Ottrubay maternal branch of the family of Mr. Milan Mamusich (who serves at the Hungarian Miranda Institute), as his nephew Salvador, Prince of Ítúrbide (whose other uncle was Francis Joseph the King of Hungary)  married Baroness Gizela Mikos at the familly castle of Mikosd in Hungary. The change in the spelling of the surname from Mikos to Mikoss occurred shortly before 1920 , the dismemberment of multilingual Hungary. Another  member of the Ottrubay family branch, Baron Gyula of Hruby  the Adjunct of General Artúr Görgei, was the first martyr of the homeland who along with the Martyrs of Arad, was among the publicly executed revolutionary leaders of the nation, following the lost Hungarian war of liberation against the Habsburg Bourbon Empire in 1848.  Up until 1920  Károly (Charles) Ottrubay was the adjunct of the last Hungarian King Charles IV ,of  the  Habsburg Bourbon Dynasty, which used to dominate both Hungary and Latin America. A family member born in Arad, Hungary (annexed to Romania in 1920), during the course of the XX-th century, Károly (Carlos) Mikoss Ottrubay  (with the same name as his uncle, the royal adjunct) was a university professor at the Simon Bolivar University of Caracas (his son Imre follows the same path). To this day in Caracas, there is a memorial place in his honor for dedicating his life to the technological development of Venezuela. The one-time Budapest mentor of Károly (Carlos) Mikoss Ottrubay was none other than the back-then-yet completely -unknown János (John) v. Neumann, who later served a fundamental role in the development of the computer  and went to the USA not only to work with Albert Einstein, but to become a principal member of the Manhattan Project.

Although it is only a tangent of the history of Venezuela and Hungary, it is worth noting that to this day there are blood ties (with people alive today in Central Europe) between the historical families of Hungary and the Inca emperors of Latin America. Linked to the same above described Hungarian family that received and supported Generalissimo Miranda in Hungary, in the eighteenth century the Hungarian aristocrat Sebastian Berzeviczy married in Peru, the Inca Princess Umina Atahualpa. They had a daughter named Umina Berzeviczy, who in turn married Túpac Amaró II (José Gabriel Condorcanqui), and to escape the Spaniards they came to Hungary (a part of Hungary, which since 1920 belongs to Poland) where the Spaniards followed them and murdered Umina Berzeviczy, but their son Antonio survived). To this day his descendants live in Central Europe. Discovery Channel with the help of the Hungarian Mikos family made a documentary film (dubbed to Spanish) on this. For more audiovisual information in Spanish and to see the documentary see numerals 303 A to 303 E in the text after opening this link.

Dr.  Jesús Muñoz, the most talented Venezuelan student of the Hungarian Professor Károly (Carlos) Mikoss Ottrubay  at the Simon Bolivar University of Caracas, later became his adjunct for over 15 years.  Dr. Muñoz currently serves as a professor of energetics not only at the Simon Bolivar University , but also at the Central University of Venezuela. The latter institution founded in 1722  is one of the oldest universities in the western hemisphere, having received its Papal Bull from  Pope Innocent XIII, who in turn became Pope with the assistance of Mihály Althan the Hungarian Bishop of Vác, who later served as his main advisor.


As a consequece of Miranda's special relationship with Hungary,  to this day the Hungarian hussars (which in Hungarian means a unit of twenty) are present in Venezuela, dressed in the red gala uniform of a hungarian hussar general of the XIX century, not only at the Presidential Palace of Miraflores but also at The National Pantheon and at the Montaña Barracks, where they guard the eternal spirit of the heroes of Latin American independence and those brave Hungarians who supported them. On the right you can see a Spanish language video made by Venezuelan historians led by Dr. Gonzalo Pulido and FANB  Hussar General Celso Canelones  which (beginning  at 2:06 min.) details how the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus established the Hungarian hussars in 1485. The Venezuelan Hussars of The Libertador were established by SImon Bolivar on the 12th of  February of 1815.  The video (beginning at min 11:38 ) details the pieces of the hussar uniform with Hungarian words such as "Dolmány". However, the video not only fails to mention that Generalissimo  Francisco de Miranda  came to Hungary , but that before he came to receive help from the source of freedom to liberate Latin America, he  had already fought along the Hungarian Hussars at the side of George Washington, during the War of Independence of the United States of America, and during the French Revolution in France. Moreover as mentioned General Agustín Jerónimo Ítúrbide, faithful to Bolivar till the end in Colombia, had family in Hungary including the Hungarian King , Francis Joseph.

 

Two centuries of common history: The same uniform used is today in Hungary (see pictures below left) and Venezuela. See below right a video made by the FANB (Armed Forces of Venezuela) on their oldest military unit, the Bolivarian Hungarian Hussar Guard. Up to this day, their flag is red with white and green stripes (at 0:35 min.), which are the colors of the Hungarian Flag! Beginning  at 2:06 min. details how the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus established the Hungarian hussar corps in 1485, and at 11:38 min. discusses the pieces of the hussar uniform , with Hungarian words such as "Dolmány". 

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The above video made by Venezuelan FANB historians mentions the fact that the first Hussar uniform that Venezuela adopted was that of the French Hussars. The latter was established by  the Hungarian Count Ladislas Ingnace de Bercheny who had to flee Hungary, following the defeat of the First War of  Liberation led by Prince Rákóczi II (1703-1710) , against the Habsburg Bourbon empire. Count Ladislas Ingnace de Bercheny established the  corps  of the French Hussars in 1720, and later became the Marshall of France.  He was succeded at the helm of the French hussars by the Hungarian Count  Jospeh Valentine Esterhazy (1705-1743), who in turn was succeded by his son, Count Michael Valentine Esterhazy (1740-1806) who in 1805 was already a general.  In 1805 Simon Bolivar, along with his teacher Simón Rodriguez, visited France. As we have already explained, Generalisimo Francisco de Miranda  had already visited Hungary in 1785, and received help from Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy "The Magnificent" who was a member of the aforementioned Hungarian family. It is no coincidence that the first hussar uniform adopted in Venezuela was "French". This Venezuelan hussar uniform (beginning at min. 7:19 in the above video) was red, white and green. Even to this day, the flag of the Venezuelan Presidential Hussar Guard of Honor (beginning at min. 0:36 in the above video) is red with white and green stripes.  These are the colors of the National Flag of Hungary ! The video also correctly describes the fact, that in similar ways, Hungarian hussar corps existed in various countries of Europe, including England, Germany and Spain among others. Below on the left you can see a video of the Hungarian hussars in Caracas, Venezuela with Nicolás Maduro Moros, the President of Venezuela, during one of the the highest level ceremonies of the Bolivarian State , which is the Oath of the Hussars to the Country, which takes place at the Miraflores Presidential Palace. The  Sword of The Liberator Simon Bolivar is also guarded by the Hungarian hussars at the National Pantheon . Similarly  *the Hungarian Hussar Crown Guard in their dark green uniform* guard St. Stephen's Crown in Hungary, kept inside the Hungarian Parliament building.

 

On the 20th of August St. Stephen's day is celebrated in Budapest, the capital with  a magnificent display of fireworks that lasts about half an hour,  with similar celebrations of lesser duration taking place around the country. You can see (video below right) the  Hungarian hussar generals dancing the Hungarian "Palotás" dance, wearing the same red 19th century uniform as their brethren in arms in present day Venezuela. Many  ancestors  of the aristocratic paternal family branch of the Hungarian economist Mr. Milan Mamusich (who serves at the Hungarian Miranda Institute)  wore the hussar uniform as Hungarian hussar generals, including his grandfather István (Stephen) Mamusich (picture)  a decorated hero of two world wars who was assassinated during the dictatorship in 1958. István Mamusich (full story in Spanish with pictures )  as many of his ancestors was educated at The Royal and Imperial Theresian Military Academy of Wienerneustadt in Vienna, Austria,  the oldest of its kind in the world,  at which the kings of Spain with military inclinations were traditionally educated. The Hungarian hero of 1848 János (Juan) Czetz , who later founded the National Military College in Argentina, was also educated at the Theresian Military Academy of Wienerneustadt .

 

 The Hungarian War of Liberation of 1848 , closely followed the Venezuelan Liberation War of 1820, both fought against the same empire. Its principal symbol is a Hungarian hussar general dressed in red. 

The Hungarian hussar dressed in red is immortalized in works of art, music, and theater  and nowadays it constitutes one of the main symbols of Hungary, as an independent and free nation. The popular, heroic and giant poet of Hungarian independence, Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi composed his epic poem „John the Valiant” (János Vitéz) which tells the story of the humble pastor John who through his valor stands out as a revolutionary hussar, who fights the foreign white-wigged colonizing aristocrats (i.e. the Habsburgs) to protect the people and the love of his life Iluska (diminutive of Helen). Here you may read the English language translation of this epic poem made theater.

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The "Palotás" dance  in opera version was composed shortly before  the Hungarian War of Liberation of 1848 which closely followed the Venezuelan Liberation War of 1820, both fought against the same empire. Its principal symbol is a Hungarian hussar general dressed in red.  The "Palotás" Opera (see video below right) interpreted by world famous Hungarian violinist Zoltán Mága,  which is one of the most important compositions in Hungary, (is the work of Ferenc Erkel who also composed the Hungarian Anthem ) and it fills entire stadiums. The Hungarian Government attends these performances. In similar ways the Bolivarian Hussar Guard (video below left) is always sworn in by the Venezuelan Commander in Chief (head of state) in the Miraflores Presidential Palace in Caracas, Venezuela.

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Hungarian hussars are also present at the National Pantheon in Caracas dedicated to Simon Bolivar, the liberator of the continent and the founder of the Bolivarian Latin American states.  The highest honor to  Pan Latin American independence and statehood,  the Ceremony of the Sword of Simon Bolivar  is connected to Hungarian hussars ( see video below left beginning min. 1:50 ), and the same hussars honor the Hungarian flag in Budapest, Hungary (see picture below right). 

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In modern day Hungary the red hussar uniform is not only worn during solemn occasions (picture below left), but patriotic Hungarians assisted the UEFA Euro 2016 soccer matches to support the Hungarian National Soccer Team (picture below righ). Note that in their chests and faces they wear red, white, green stripes which are not only the colors of the Hungarian Flag but also are the colors of the Flag of the Simon Bolivar Presidential Honor Guard of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 

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The Memorial  Monument of  the Battle of Carabobo of 1821  in Venezuela ( a battle which proved decisive for the independence of Latin America)  to this day is guarded by Hungarian hussars (video below on the left). Simon Bolivar's Hungarian Hussar Guard of Honor is among the first five in the world (out of the 125 honor guards in existence) considering their age, along with the Pontificial Swiss Guard of the Vatican and the Beefeaters of Buckingham Palace in England. There are similar monuments in various countries of Latin America. On national independence day, even Venezuelan schoolchildren of non Hungarian ancestry wear the Hungarian hussar uniform (video on the right).

   

     Below is the picture of The Arch of Triumph at the site of the Battle of Carabobo of 1821,  where Latin America’s independence was won ! The Hungarian hussars are permanently present here, guarding the eternal flames of liberty (seen on the above video on the left) honoring the spirit of Latin America and Hungary!
 

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 See below the world’s largest hussar statue. The hussars are a military unit born in Hungary, and is one of its most important national symbols. The statue was unveiled with the attendance of the Hungarian Military High Command on the 29th of September 2017, in line with raising the country's historical awareness. The hussar statue resembles metal die cast  in the style of a tin soldier, a traditional toy enjoyed by Hungarian children. The statue is lovingly called „Miska” Hussar (Hussar Mike). Hussar Mike is located at the glorious Pákozd Battle Field, in Hungary. The Battle of Pákozd took place during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 (inspired by Bolivar’s victory achieved with Hungarian help), fought against the same empire that dominated Venezuela as well.

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The color of the Hungarian hussar uniforms differ according to the geographical location of the unit, rank and time period. To the right you can see the Hungarian hussars of   the Hungarian city of Fehérvár, in their traditional blue uniform.  The Hussar tradition is the essence of the brave spirit of the Hungarians, so much so that every year the main square of the capital city of Budapest is closed down for the great memorial  celebrations of the Hungarian hussar cavalry. The main square is called the Heroes' Square and  is dedicated to the                                                              founding Hungarian tribal leaders, and the kings of our millenary Hungary.

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After the defeat of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 fought against the same Habsburg-Bourbons who also dominated Latin America and Venezuela, on the sixth of October of 1848, the Thirteen Martyrs of Arad , the main heroic leaders of the revolution were executed on orders of the empire. Note that in the picture below from that era,  two of the martyrs are dressed in red uniforms which correspond to the rank of general. The same uniform  is still in use in Venezuela. The first to be murdered was the Aid of General Artúr (Arthur) Görgei, Baron Gyula of Hruby ancestor of the Hungarian economist Milan Mamusich (site in Spanish)  who serves the Miranda Institute. Baron Gyula of Hruby belonged to the Mikoss-Ottrubay branch of the family, and as such was a contemporary and relative of General Agustín Jerónimo de Ítúrbide, Prince Imperial of Mexico (and a relative of Fancis Joseph I, King of Hungary)  who was faithful to Simon Bolivar till the end in Colombia. As we have seen, the Esterhazy branch of the same family in 1785 received and supported Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda in Hungary. Simon Bolivar visited France in 1805 and adopted the uniform of the Hungarian hussars of France, which at the time were under the command of Count Michael Valentine Esterhazy. 

 

The successful revolution of Simon Bolivar in 1820 in no small way was birthed in Hungary, and had  sizeable consequences for Hungary. The Iconic leader of the Hungarian nation, Count István Széchenyi, based his revolutionary works on those of Simon Bolivar.  As a consequence in 1948 Hungary fought a liberation war against the Habsburg Bourbon Empire which dominated both Hungary and Venezuela. Although the Hungarian Liberation War of 1848 was drowned in blood, it did help to eventually end the empire.

 

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The Hungarian Count István Széchenyi

In 1983, on the occasion of the  two hundreth anniversary of the birth of Simon Bolivar, the bilingual Spanish - Hungarian book entitled  "Hungary Remembers Simon Bolivar"  was published under the auspices of a world-famous Hungarian Professor at the University of Sciences of Szeged and expert on Latin American history , Dr. Ádám Anderle (bilingual Hungarian - Spanish language site of the University of Sciences of Szeged).

This book includes  14 scholarly essays written by several Hungarian and Latin American  researchers detailing ways the Hungarian Count Széchenyi based his work on the ideas of Simon Bolivar.   Paradoxically, in 2008, Professor Ádám Anderle was   even decorated for his scholarship by Spanish Monarch Juan Carlos Borbón with the Order of Isabel La Católica (link in Spanish).  The aforementioned book was published by the  

Simon Bolivar on the book cover

Hungarian Simon Bolivar Memorial  Commission of the Hungarian Institute of Social Sciences, which is part of the  Hungarian Academy of Sciences,  in turn founded and initially funded by Count István Széchenyi. ​ Although the above-described coin, stamp and book were issued before the Berlin Wall came down, the present Hungarian Government continues to maintain the historical Bolivarian commemorations due to its indelible importance to the Hungarian nation.  In 2013, his excellency the Venezuelan Ambassador appointed to  Hungary, Dr. Raúl Betancourt Seeland, honored the statue of Simon Bolivar in Budapest, at the Simon Bolivar Boulevard. The latter is now a residential area which was bombed  during WWII. During the Hungrian Liberation War of 1848 fough in the spirit of Simon Bolivar , this place had and continues to have a great historical significance.

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 Francisco de Miranda  Scientific Institute of Budapest Hungary